The Republic by Plato - The Republic is Plato's most famous work and one of the seminal texts of Western philosophy and politics. The characters in this Socratic dialogue - including Socrates himself - discuss whether the just or unjust man is happier.
"Our use of the phrase 'the Dark Ages' to cover the period from 699 to 1,000 marks our undue concentration on Western Europe. From India to Spain, the brilliant civilization of Islam flourished. What was lost to Christendom at this time was not lost to civilization, but quite the contrary. To us it seems that West-European civilization is civilization; but this is a narrow view." Bertrand Russell (1872 - 1970) - [History of Western Philosophy, London, 1948, p. 419]
because all (Western) philosophy consists of a series of footnotes to Plato
Plato Silanion Musei Capitolini Plato was also a mathematician but most importantly he made the foundation for philosophy and science.
Refreshing take on one man's journey through western philosophy. Read the review at The Independent: http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/books/book-review-onward-and-upward-confessions-of-a-philosopher-by-bryan-magee-weidenfeld-nicolson-pounds-1254515.html