The British colony of New South Wales was established with the arrival of the First Fleet of 11 vessels under the command of Captain Arthur Phillip in January 1788. It consisted of over a thousand settlers, including 778 convicts (192 women and 586 men). A few days after arrival at Botany Bay the fleet moved to the more suitable Port Jackson where a settlement was established at Sydney Cove on 26 January 1788.
George Street by Church Hill, Sydney by Powerhouse Museum Collection
View of the Heads, and part of Botany Bay - from the End of Cook's River [about 8 miles from Sydney - New South Wales - The point of land seen to the right is call'd Cape Banks, that to the left Cape Solander] Joseph Lycett