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This image shows a neuron from the visual system of a mouse.

Researchers succeed in restoring the ability of adult mice to form new connections in the brain. Researchers in Stanford’s Bio-X program are investigating growth in the neurons involved in a mouse’s visual system.

Living neurons firing The micrograph shows living neuronal cells. In a gene-modified procedure different components of the cells are coloured by fluorescent proteins, so that two different structure components, tubulin and actin, obtain different colours.

The firing of neurons in the human brain – using a substance that makes the nerve fluoresce scientists are able to take pictures of the brain in action.

What do memories look like? USC scientists have developed a way to see where & how our memory is written. They engineered microscopic probes that light up synapses in a living neuron in real time by attaching fluorescent markers onto synaptic proteins — all without affecting the neuron’s ability to function. The fluorescent markers allow scientists to see live excitatory and inhibitory synapses for the first time and, importantly, how they change as new memories are formed.

This image shows a living neuron in culture: green dots indicate excitatory synapses; red dots indicate inhibitory synapses (Don Arnold)

The brain con­tains some 100 bil­lion nerve cells called neu­rons (Fig­ure 1, to the rightsynapses) which branch out to form over one quadrillion con­nec­tions called synapses. (Fig­ure 2, to the left). The eas­i­est way trading brainto con­cep­tu­al­ize this is that there are more synapses in the human brain than there are stars in the known uni­verse. Mem­ory and learn­ing occur when the neu­rons and synapses reor­ga­nize and strengthen them­selves through repeated usage.

All trading strategies and decision making are brain-based synaptic strategies. The human brain has an infinite capacity to change, organize and reorganize.

"Brains are gorgeous at the right magnification", says Mark Miller on his "neuro" set of photos in flickr. Self-described as an intracellular recording artist, Miller shows images of a mouse's neuronal network.    Covering different areas of the brain such as the cingulated cortex or motor cortex, the images are quite impressive, particularly since the neurons connecting in the brain resemble the large-scale structure of the universe.

"Brains are gorgeous at the right magnification", says Mark Miller. His images are quite impressive, particularly since the neurons connecting in the brain resemble the large-scale structure of the universe.

Impressive 3D brain scan shows every neuron connection in a brain

Impressive 3D brain scan shows every neuron connection in a brain

Impressive brain scan shows every neuron connection in a brain

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Culture of rat brain cells stained with antibody to (green), Neurofilament (red) and DNA (blue)

A neuron from the hippocampus at 63-times magnification. There are approximately 100 billion neurons in the human brain. Image by Dr. Carlo Sala, CNR Institute of Neuroscience.

It's pretty awesome to see an actual neuron and be able to identify it's components A neuron from the hippocampus at magnification. There are approximately 100 billion neurons in the human brain. Image by Dr. Carlo Sala, CNR Institute of Neuroscience

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